Skip to main content

Full text of "Evolution : a journal of nature"

See other formats



5*06 (73) Ha 
1-h 1927-38 











A N '35n3DjA9 ^^^ 


Vol. II. No. 5 

AUGUST, 1923 


10 Cents 


Entered as second class matter at New V ork, N. \ ., Jan. 7, 1928. Evolution Pnbli.shing Corporation. 96 5th Ave., N. Y. 

"Logical consequences are the scarecrows of fools and the 
beacons of wise men. The only question which any wise man 
can ask himself, and w^hich any honest man will ask himself, 
is whether a doctrine is true or false." 

TnoM.x.s H. HuxLEV 

r.v.i: Two 

E V O L U T I O N 

August, 1929 

The Life Story of An Eel 


'T'HE most famous person undoubtedly to inquire 
into the family antecedents of the eel was Aristotle, 
who left a record of his opinion that eels have no sexes 
or eggs, and that they arise from the entrails of the 
sea. Later speculation.'^, less negative, but no nearer 
the irutli, derived them from snakes, worms, or beetles, 
and — the latest suggestion, emanating from New Eng- 
laiul- vven frcm clam.',. 

Why should it 
be so difficult to 
get the facts re- 
garding the de- 
velopment of 
these bizarre 
fishes? Anyone 
who has visited 
a fish hatchery 
has probably 
seen tnousands 
of tiny trout de- 
veloping from 
eggs laid and 
fertilized in the 
waters of the 
hatchery. B u t 
only four years 
ago did anyone 
ever see the egg 
of an eel, and 
only one person has ever studied its development. 
Now the matter is simplicity itself. All anyone need 
do is to join a deep-sea exploring expedition, embark- 
on a yacht equipped with the last word in scientific 
apparatus, and proceed to a region of the Atbrntic 
(Jcean southwest of Bermuda — the famed Sargasso 
Sea where, in 1925, William Beebe and his company 
of scientists reveled in their "Arcturus Adventure." 

Then you may watch the nets go down and scooo up 
quantities of the surface life of the sea, or planktfju. 
In this oozy "sea soup" may be found the larvae of 
eels, varying in size from a quarter of an inch to tiiree 
inches in length, thin as a willow leaf, and of about 
the same shape. Dr. Beebe described them as "mother- 
of-pearl eyes swimming round by themselves," the 
body being perfectly transparent. The finding of the 
larvae was not a new discovery, for Dr. Jobs. Schmidt 
of Denmark had worked out the astounding migration 
path of the larvae and their metamorphosis into eels, 
publishing his results just before the Arcturus Ex- 
pedition set out. But neither he nor anyone else knew 
what the larvae came froin. 

To unravel this mystery, ask the expert on larval 
fishes for a microscope and one of those pin-head dots 

Development of eel: At first it shrinks 

in size, then assumes adult shape and 

starts to grow 

of living stuff dredged up from the sea depths, which 
are engaging her attention. Then, after a few days of 
more or less constant study — and let us hope the ship 
is not pitching too much — you may observe, as did 
Marie Poland Fish, the tiny dot actually transform 
into a larval eel. This discovery shows the importance 
of being in the right .place at the right time. The right 
place — and the only place — to answer this question 
about eels, is in mid-Atlantic, the only region where 
our eels breed. Thus with a few accessories, like 
niiscroscopes, a ship, patience, scientific training, and 
immunity from mal-de-mer, the question that perplexed 
Aristotle is answered. Simple enough ! 

Now the whole story is known. American and Euro- 
pean eels have the same breeding ground, the sea near 
Bermuda. The larvae drift northward in the currents 
of the Gulf Stream, changing from leaf-like creatures 
into small rounded eels, or elvers. The American 
species seek the various rivers along the eastern shore 
of the United States, and swarm up-stream in great 
numbers, even wriggling over grass on rainy nights to 
reach the land-locked pKjnds in which they mature. In 
the fall of the year, the adult eels migrate from inland 
waters to the sea, traveling months before they reach 
the Atlantic breeding grounds, there to begin anew the 
cycle of development, and to die immediately after 

European eels, migrating northward in the same 
ocean currents, take three years instead of one to meta- 
morphose. They are therefore not ready to ascend 
ri\ers when they near our shores and are carried on 
north-easterly until they reach the shores of Europe. 
Phere, as elvers, they ascend the streams and rivers. 
Dr. Schmidt, in his report on The Breeding Places of 
the Eel, states that eels have been taken in waters in 
Switzerland at an altitude of 3,000 feet above the sea. 
He points out that although extensive migrations of 
fish are not unusual, the eels are really related to salt- 
water fishes, and "the remarkable point in their life 
history is not so much the fact of their migration out 
to sea to spawn, as in their leaving it in order to pass 
their period of growth in an environment so unusual 
for muraenoid fishes as fresh water." 

The basis for the idea that eels arise from clams, al- 
ready referred to, is probably the observation that 
clams often have a transparent gelatinous rod, about 
one inch and a half long, protruding from a break in 
their tissues. This rod is eel-like in form and size, and 
like the undeveloped eel is also transparent. It is a « 
secretion from the stomach of the clam called the 
crystalline style. Its function was not definitely known 
until Dr. Thurlow Nelson of Rutgers University in 
1925 explained its importance in aiding to separate 
the food materials from sand in the digestive tract of 
the clam. 

August. 1929 


Page Three 

The Super-Men of Cro-Magnon 


Cro-Magnon Man, as restored by 
J. H. McGregor 

T^HE rock shelter of Cro-Magnon is in the French 
village of Les Ej-zies, in the Dordogne Valley. 

Here, in 1868, were discovered the first skeletons of 

Cro - Magnon Man. 
Many other finds 
since then make our 
knowledge of this an- 
cient race of Cro- 
Magnon very com- 

The Cro-Magnons 
lived in the Upper 
Paleolithic age, ahout 
25,000 to 10^000 B.C. 
This age is divided 
into three periods, 
named, in ascending 
order, the Aurigna- 
cian, Solutrean and 
Magdalenian, after the 
towns of Aurignac, 
Solutre and La Ma- 
deleine where the 
first type tools were found. For each period is dis- 
tinguished by a different kind of tools, the type tools 
of one period not carrying over into the next, although 
the same basic design, may be preserved. 

The Cro-Magnons were fine physical specimens, 
some skeletons indicating a height of six feet, four 
inches. The race as a whole was taller than the aver- 
age modern European and far taller than the Neander- 
thal race. Also, the Cro-Magnon walked fully erect 
and held his head high. His brain equalled or excelled 
ours in cubical contents. Some have suggested that he 
might have been a mutation from the Neanderthal, but 
it is probable that he evolved in Asia and immigrated 
to the land of the Neanderthal. 

In almost every case, the skeletons show care m 
burial, and at some stations the body was placed in a 
particular position, surrounded by shells or tools. 
Sometimes the grave had been filled with a special 
earlh. and one skeleton had been painted red. All this 
indicates that this people considered burial an impor- 
tant ceremony, and they probably had a belief in an 
after-life. Certainly they valued the remains of their 
dead more than had any preceding race. 

During the first or Aurignacian period, the cleaver, 
point and scraper were replaced by improved tools 
shaped from blade-like flint flakes from which small 
chips were removed by pressing instead of striking. 
In tb's manner, Aurignacian man made knives with an 
evident handle and sharply pointed gravers for carving 
on bones and on cave walls. He also made bone and 
ivory points, cleft at the liase for the end of his javelin. 
In the Solutrean period the art of flint working by 
pressure flaking reached its highest development. The 

most characteristic and beautiful tools were the laurel 
leaf and willow leaf points, the former two inches to 
a foot long, symmetrical, evenly flaked, straight, shar]) 
and thin, the latter even more delicate and slender. 

But all this marvelous dexterity eventually came to 
naught, for the Magdalenians who followed paid little 
attention to flint implements. They did use flint drills, 
saws, gravers and scratchers, but they made real prog- 
ress in transforming reindeer horn and bones into 
javelin points, needles, awls, fishhooks, harpoons and 
dart throwers. 

Where the Magdalenians did excel was in their art, 
figures carved from ivory and stone, probably of magi- 
cal significance, perhaps worshipped as idols, and on 
the walls of their caves, drawings and paintings. In 
1878, Marquis Santyola, accompanied by his little 
daughter, was searching the cavern of Altamira, Spain, 
for relics of ancient man. Suddenly she cried out, 

Painting of Bison in colors. Cavern of Altamira, Spain 

"Toros! Toros! (Bulls! Bulls!)", and pointed ex- 
citedly to the ceiling of the cavern, all covered with the 
frescoes drawn by Magdalenian man. Subsequently 
other caves were discovered in France and Spain, their 
ceilings and walls similarly covered with drawings, 
some just outlines, others filled in with bright colors 
that have not faded to this day. 

What happened to Cro-Magnon man we do not 
know. We do know that he lived in the cold 
of the Ice Age, and that when the ice melted away to 
the North, the animals he hunted for food left for 
colder regions. Some think he followed them and that 
the Eskimos are his descendants. Their culture is much 
like his, but their physical characteristics are very dif- 
ferent. Probably this prehistoric race of artists just 
died out. Or the warm weather made life too easy so 
they degenerated and became the easy victims of more 
vigorous invaders from Asia or the Mediterranean 
region. Others, however, think that Cro-Magnon blood 
still courses through the veins of some Europeans, but 
of that we can only guess. 

Page Four 


August, 1929 

Brains — How Come? 


A PE became Man when he learned to talk. For taFk 

gave him thought. No overnight matter, that. It 

took a million years. For there's a lot behind it ; new 

brain centers, new muscular control, an understanding 

ear, a wise eye, man's organization of mind. 

Our ape ancestors probably had the essential physi- 
cal equipment, such as vocal cords and muscles, tongue 
and all the rest, without having learned to use them 
in real talk. At least not in wordy talk 
about ideas. They had plenty of feel- 
ings, but mighty few ideas. So their 
first talk was about feelings. With 
voice of course, but quite as much by 
grimace and gesture. Crooning ten- 
derness, love's sweet nothings, chatter- 
ing' excitement, screaming anger, bel- 
lowing defiance, wailing sorrow, whim- 
pering hunger, all without words. 

The first real words were warning 
cries, and soon, commands to do or not 
to do. Primitive equivalents of our 
'T-ook out!" "Beat it!" "Stop, Look 
and Listen," "Come and get it." Next 
they probably named each other and 
the common things of their lives, and 
told each other what to do about 
those things. Very simply, of course. 
It took a long time before they made 
up honest-to-goodness sentences, full 
of "ands, ifs, huts, and hences," de- 
scriptive adjectives, modifying ad- 
verbs, and all the what-nots of our 
expressive languages. Such intricate 
inventions came only as the speech 
centers of man's brain developed. 

Significantly enough, those speech centers are bet- 
ter developed on one side of his brain. Usually the left 
side, to go with his normal right-handedness (also 
under left-brain control). Speech always was mixed 
up with gestures, and we still talk a lot with our hands. 
Ouite naturally, therefore, the speech centers developed 
more on the left side of the brain. And it probably 
helped; that man. for the last few thousand years at 
least, has been picturing his ideas and writing his talk 
(again mostly with his skilled right hand). Inevitably, 
too, the related higher speech centers for understand- 
ing the meanings of words heard, of words seen, 
located themselves largely nearby on the same talk-side. 

Belonging together, the various ways of acquiring 
and expressing meanings became mentally tied together. 
Things seen, pictures drawn, names heard and spoken, 
words written, all used together, were kept together in 
the brain. But not in one brain center. For already 
each sense and muscle had its own established brain 
center, and each stayed put, but took its share in the 

Language Centers in Man's Brain 
.\fter Brcuil 
After .Janifs 

complicated job of talking. Complicated, and more 
complicated ! For towards the end, man made a great 
nivention, a new set of pictures, the letters of the 
alphal)et. Symbols these, just meaning sounds, talking 
I)ictures. Man spells them together into words, writ- 
ten as they sound, spoken as written. Handy and last- 
ing. But what a job for his brain ! Old brain centers 
made over, new ones developed, all kept working to- 
gether by long-distance nerve connec- 

But look what it means to man. 
Without words he could not think, not 
like a modern. For man thinks with 
words. Thought is just silent talking. 
Childreh think a lot out loud. So do 
people who live much alone. So do 
we, muttering thoughts, making lip 

Now words can mean one thing, 
or a group of like things, or the like- 
ness between them, or doings to them. 
They can mean real stuff, or general 
qualities, or doings done, and even 
nothing at all. For one can acquire 
words with meanings, or empty ones 
without meanings, beyond sound and 
spelling. If they mean real things to 
Us. they serve as a mental shorthand 
fur truthful and workable thinking. 
But if they are empty words, just 
habits of utterance which we rever- 
ence and mouth, they do sad things to 
our thinking, or what passes for think- 
ing. They may satisfy our minds, 
and sound like the wisdom of the 
ages, but they will trick us into mere 
zcordiiii/. Then we just think we think. 

Real thinking is also wording, l.nit a different kind. 
1 he words have real contents of meaning. They mean 
real things, real qualities of things, real likenesses 
between things, real ideas. Because they serve us as 
mental shorthand, we could never have attained to 
Iiiiiuan thinking at all had we not found words to think 
with. If we watch our words, avoid making them 
empty sounds, we can keep them useful. The best way 
is to keep our contacts with fact, through scientific 
ex]ieriment and observation, through practical arts. 
Only in these worlds of fact can we keep our words full 
of true meanings. Words like that keep our thinking 
straight to guide our doing. For truth works. 

That, in fact, is the test of truth — it works. Try it 
on your own ideas. Give your wordings the once over. 
Words were the making of man. With speech he 
passed his ideas around, traded them for a lot more 
others. But ideas spread by word of mouth are easily 
twisted, or even lost. Writing solved that problem. 

August. 1929 


Page Five 

Written words could be kept strai,i;ht, kejit tor future 
generations. Knowledge began to accumulate. Each 
generation started where the last one left off. Printing 
helped too. Knowledge could be spread, all over the 
world, to scholar and layman. With knowledge popu- 
larized, nearl}- evervone was thinking. Bright minds 

got their starts, emerged to discover and invent, to help 
lift mankind higher. So the rate of progress increased. 
More thinking men and women on the job. More tested 
knowledge to work with. The result — man making his 
world lietter, making life happier. It sounds strange, 
l:ut he talked himself into it. 

When Birds Had Teeth 


C EPARATED b}- millions of years from that 
earliest of all known birds, the toothed Archaeop- 
teryx of the Jurassic period (described last month), 
the next birds that we know come from the chalk beds 
of western Kansas. Time enough had passed for mem- 
bers of one group to have quite lost their wings, yet 
they still retained teeth, the most bird-like of them be- 
ing quite unlike any modern bird in this respeci. The 
first specimens were obtained by Professor Marsh in 
his expeditions of 1870 and 1871, but not until a few- 
years later, after the material had been cleaned and 
was being studied, was it ascertained that these birds 
were armed with teeth. The smaller of these birds was 
not unlike a small gull and was, saving its teeth, so 
thoroughly a bird that it may be passed by without 
further notice. The larger, however, was remarkable 

Draw inii lj>- (ileeson 
The Toothed Diver. Hesperornis Regalis 

in many ways. Hesperornis was a great diver, in some 
ways the greatest of the divers, slender and graceful 
in general build, looking somewhat like an overgrown, 
absolutely wingless loon. 

The penguins, as everyone knows, swim with their 
front limbs — we can't call them wings — which, though 
containing all the hones of a wing, have become trans- 
formed into powerful paddles. Hesperornis, on the 
other hand, swam altogether with its legs — swam so 
well with them, indeed, that through natural selection 
the disused wings dwindled away and vanished, save 
one bone. Hesperornis was large, upwards of five feet 
long, and if its ancestors were equally bulky, their 
wings were c|uite too big for swimming under water as 
do the short-winged Auks which fly under water quite 
as they fly over it. Hence the big wings were closelv 
fiildud upon the body to off'er tlr* least possible resi-t- 

ance, and it was advantageous that th>jy and their 
muscles dwindled, while the bones and muscles of the 
legs increased by constant use. By the time the wings 
were small enough to be used in so dense a medium as 
water, the muscles had become too feeble to move 
them, and so degeneration proceeded until but one bone 
remained, a mere vestige. The penguins retain their 
great breast muscles, as did the Great Auk, since it 
takes even more strength to move a small wing in 
water than a large wing in the thinner air. 

As a swimming bird, one that swims with its legs 
and not with its wings, Hesperornis has probably never 
been equalled, for the size and appearance of the bones 
indicate great power, while the bones of the foot were 
so joined to those of the leg as to turn edgewise as the 
foot was brought forward, thus offering less resistance 
to the water. It is remarkable that these leg bones are 
hollow, because as a rule the bones of aquatic animals 
are more or less solid, their weight being supported 
by the water; liut those of the great diver were almost 
as light as if it had dwelt on dry land. That it did not 
dwell there is conclusively shown by its feet. 

The most extraordinary thing about Hesperornis is 
the position of the legs relative to the body, and this is 
something that was not even suspected until the skele- 
ton was mounted in a swimming attitude. As anyone 
knows who has watched a duck swim, the usual place 
for the feet and legs is beneath and in line with the 
body. But in our great extinct diver, the joints of the 
leg bones are such that this was impossible, and the 
feet and lower legs must have stood out nearly at right 
angles to the body, like a pair of oars. This is such 
a peculiar attitude for a bird's legs that, although ap- 
parently indicated by the shape of the bones, it was at 
first thought to be due to the crushing and consequent 
distortion to which the bones had been subjected, and 
an endeavor was made to place them in the ordinary 
position, even at the expense of a dislocation of the 
joints. But when the mounting of the skeleton had 
advanced further, it became evident that Hesperornis 
was no ordinary bird and could not swim in the usual 
manner, since this would have brought his knee-caps 
uncomfortably up into his body. And so, at the cost of 
much time and trouble, the mountings were so changed 
that the legs stood out at the sides of the body, as 
shown in the picture, a position verified later by the 
discovery of the specimen now in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, in which the limbs lay in 
jii^t the position given them by the artist. Mr. Glceson. 

Page Six 


August. 1929 

Hesperornis was prol^ably covered with smooth, soft 
feathers. This we know because Professor Williston 
found a specimen showing the impression of the skin 
of the lower leg, as well as of feathers that covered the 
"thigh" and head. While such a covering seems rather 
inadequate for a bird of such exclusively aquatic 
habits, there seems to be no getting away from the 

facts. And we do have in the Snake Bird, one of the 
most aquatic of modern birds, an instance of a similar- 
ly poor covering. Its feathers shed the water very 
imperfectly, and after long-continued submersion be- 
come saturated, which partly accounts for the habit 
the bird has of hanging itself out to drv. 

Evolution: Fact or Fake? 

Conclusion of the Debate held at Mecca Auditorium, 
New York, February 7, J929. betzveen Professor 
Joseph McCabe of England and Reverend W. B. Riley 
of Minneapolis on the question : "Resolved. That Evo- 
lution Is True and Should Be Taught in the Schools." 
Two previous issues contained the opening speeches 
and Professor McCabc's second speech. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Dr. Riley again for twenty 

minutes. (Applause.) 

* ♦ * 

DR. W. B. RILEY: Mr. Chairman, ladies and 
gentlemen : In my former address I began where the 
Professor left ofT. This time I propose to take the 
opposite position and begin where he began and track 
him down. 

His declaration that evolution is a science is, as I 
stated in the first instance, a matter of counting noses. 
If the scientists agree, that settles it. How can that 
settle it? If the matter were a matter of science, there 
would be a demonstration of it. That is what I have 
listened for, and I have listened in vain. 

If there is a living man on the face of the earth that 
can bring me one instance, either out of geological 
testimony, or, out of observation, where one species 
ever evolved into another, he will produce the first 
argument for this thing that has ever been found. 

I want you also to see that the Professor is not sin- 
cere in reaching his conclusion, that because scientific 
men agree he is bound to believe it. He is not sincere. 

The scientists of the world in religion are agreed, 
for the most part, on the existence of a God, certainly 
as perfectly agreed as the material scientists are agreed 
upon this subject, for while Evolutionists come to a 
kindred conclusion, they divide over every point in the 
so-called progress. 

Now, I want to ask the Professor if he will accept 
these gentlemen, great, outstanding men in the realm 
of religion, and will go with them for a personal God 
because they are so overwhelmingly in the majority? 

Why isn't the thing that is good in one realm equal- 
ly good in another? 

Here are a few people who have spoken of the exist- 
ence of God — William James — and this is a matter of 
philosophy, not a matter of science at all. That is why 
it was born with the old Greeks. That is why it is re- 
born at the present time. 

But William James opposes the Professor's views 
as set forth in every one of McCabe's books that I 
have read. Again, Professor McCabe repudiates the 
ontological argument of .St. Anselm. 

He will have none of Father Boedder's arguments. 

He will have none of the reasonings of Dr. 
\\'arschauer as they proceed from cause to effect. He 
separates from Sir Oliver Lodge, concerning whom 
McCabe asserted : 

"He is a man of science and does not eke out his 

arguments with quotations from ancient authorities 

or foreigners whose names and authority the reader 

is not likely to know." 

The great Dr. Wallace, the matchless Lord Kelvin, 
the notable Sir J. J. Thompson, Principal Lloyd 
Morgan, Dr. Ballard, the immortal Bergson, Eucken, 
Martineau, LaConte, John Fiske ; those several Amer- 
ican professors who in 1897 published a book, "The 
Conception of God": Dr. Rashdall. Professor James 
Ward, the seven Oxford men who in 1912 gave to the 
world their "Foundations," intended as a reconstruc- 
tion of the Christian belief — these all have written 
sufficiently well to disturb my opponents and lead them 
to attempt an answer to each and every one of them, be- 
cause they are united on the fact that there must be an 
infinite Creator back of nature ; and yet. their united 
testimony makes no profound impression upon Mr. 
McCabe, so deeply immersed is he in the atheistic doc- 
trine of evolution. 

When Henry Fairfield Osborne, one of our first 
.\merican scientists, claims, as he does in his recent 
l;)ook. that the great outstanding minds of the world 
today believe in God, and that many of them are ad- 
vocates of the Christian religion ; and even when no 
less a name than that of Robert Millikan joins him 
at once in the exercise of that faith and its far-reaching 
influence, the united testimony of these is all swept 
aside by McCabe. For what reason? To save the face 
of the false and atheistic philosophy of evolution. 

With not one of them will he agree concerning God. 

Why not be consistent? If we are going to accept 
this because the scientists say it. why not accept God 
in His creative acts, because men who are scientists in' 
religion, have agreed upon the subject? 

I do not need to tell you that I am not intellectual. 
The Professor will tell you that. He has already told 
you of his own ! The man who is intellectual will never 
have to assert it. He doesn't need to assert it. 

Now, he said I passed over some of his points. I be- 
lieve I did, two of them. One of them was about the 
blue and white and red stars, or. to get them straight, 
blue, red and white stars. Will you tell me why in the 
world that confirms the evolutionary hypothesis? 

There isn't a single hint in Genesis or a claim on the 

August, 1929 


Page Seven- 

part of any living, intelligent man to the effect that 
Grod made all stars or siderial systems in one moment. 
"In the begininng God created the heavens." You can 
stretch that just as far as you want to. 

Go back sixty millions or two hundred and forty 
millions as others of them say, or go back if you want 
to into the billions and trillions as others of them say, 
or go back if you want to to the eternity of matter. 
Some worlds will be older than others. That is no con- 
firmation whatever of Evolution ! 

Now, the other thing that I have forgotten to touch 
upon is that there is not, he said, one single form of 
life that does not answer to the evolutionary hypothesis. 
On the other hand, I dare assert that there is not one 
form of life, known to the human being, that does 
answer to it. Not one. Not one known living man has 
ever seen anything in nature's processes that could for 
one minute be employed as proof that the process 
known as evolution was going on at all. Not a thing. 

I lectured one night in South Minnesota. A lioy 
who had been two years in high school and who had 
the textbooks given him, came up to me and said : 
"You have done very well. I think you have 

proved that we cannot prove our position. Neither 

ran you prove yours." 

I said: "How many illustrations would you like?" 

He said : "Give me a few." 

I said : "I can give you a million examples right on 
the farm." Have you ever heard of a hen that hatched 
anything than a chicken? Have you ever heard of fuy 
animal or any plant that produced after another kind? 
Have you ? Varieties, yes, but species, none : 

That is the testimony of Bateson, and the moment 
he said it, they discredited him. If you agree with us. 
you are a scientist, but if you .dissent you are not a 
scientist and you are ignorant. That is the process of 
argument that Evolutionists employ. 

Bees and ants we can trace farther Isack than al- 
most anything else. Out of 9,560 separate specimens 
93 species and 43 genera Wheeler and Ford said there 
was not a particle of change in all the ages throughout 
which they could trace them. No evolution anywhere. 
There is your case. Professor. You were asking for 
one. Set that down, if you please. 

I read an article in the Atlantic Monthly some two 
or three years ago on evolution wrecked on the bees' 
knees. I said: "This is news to me." I did not know- 
there were bees' knees. I can prove by the bees' knees 
that evolution is impossible. 

He said that everytjiing that the bee does involves 
him in sticky stuff. When he varnishes the base to 
build, when he gets into the comb that he works into 
the interstices of his body, it is sticky stuff'. When he 
gets nectar, it is sticky stuff. Every single one of them 
would gum him up in such a way that, like some 
people — no personal reference. Professor— he won'd 
be stuck on himself ; he would perish but for one 
thing: viz., he goes down on his knees and there are 
combs, and he cleans the antennae and ])roboscis on 
the combs. 

How many million years would it require for that 
l)ee to evolve a comb on his knee that was adequate to 
its demand, and would it not perish a million times? 
While waiting the evolution, admit adajitation and you 
ciincede intelligent creation. 

I want now to conclude wliat 1 liave to say in this 
second address by going back again to the question as 
to whether it should be taught. Here, again. I charge 
the Professor with insincerity, absolute insincerity. 

It is certainly the truth that the great moral law, 
the decalogue of the Bil)le. is true. 1 f not. then all the 
nations of the world — his own included — have gone 
wrong : and yet he is not in the company of those that 
have pleaded to have that book placed or retained in 
tlie pu))lic schools. Not at all. Why not be consistent? 

It you are going to teach everything, whether the 
people want it or not, why not bring the Bible that 
was banished back? There are only six states that 
will not permit the Bible to exist in them by law. There 
are six that demand its reading m the school.s. And 
there are thirty odd that leave it up to the attorney 
general and to the superintendent of instruction, and 
in practically every case they have l)anished the Bible. 
( .Applause. ) I know the reason why it is rejected. It 
is impalatal)le to infidels and atheists! 

[f you are going to teach this theory, then teach side 
by side with it, the creative theory. If we are going to 
ha\e men lecturing in school on evolution, then I dare 
tlieni til let me lecture therein on creation. Only in a 
few instances can we get them to concede that favor. 

I am here tonight to tell you that when this doctrine 
Iiecomes a little more recognized, you will reap the 
fruitful harvest that is sweeping over our land now. 

I spent the past summer in Scotland and Ireland. 
I he overwhelming majority of the people of that 
country do not believe in this doctrine. They do not 
be'ieve in it, and I know it from immediate contact 
with the people. I am not talking to you about a few 
jjrofessors. I am talking to you about people at large. 

Unfortunately, a good many of the criminals of that 
country, just because it is easy to cross the ocean, have 
come over to our side, and we have more than be- 
long to us. (Applause and hisses.) 

There was a time when the deism doctrine — verj 
nuich nkin to this — in fact, it is identical with it in 
manv respects — it says th^it God had nothing to di.' 
with creative acts; that He created tlie universe. an( 
started it and went off and left it. 

Now, they said He did not create it. That i^ tin 
doctrine of evolution. It leaves God out. 

.And the Professor himself is a special advocate of 
the .same doctrine that was put into Haeckel's "Riddle 
of the I^niverse" ruling God out. (Applause.) 

And France went through the strain of deism. 

.Vnd what was the result? The Reign of Terror. 

Professor Williams of Oxford University said of 

f!i? Nietzsche philosophy — that is this identical thing — 

that he was tlie only man that had lived that had the 

h.ard'linod to carrv it. to its legitimate results, and when 

I. Continued on Page 12) 

Page Eight 

E \^ O L U T I O N 

August, 1929 


A Journal of Nature 

To combat bigotry and superstition and 

develop the open mind by popularizing 

natural science 

Published monthly by 

Evolution Publishing Corporation 

96 Fifth Ave., New York. N. Y. 

Tel.: Watkins 75 87 

L. E. KattERFELD, Managing Editor 

Allan Strong BROMS, Science Editor 

Subscription rate: One dollar per year 
In lists of five or more, fifty cents. 
Foreign subscriptions ten cents extra. 

Single copy 10c; 20 or more. 5c each. 

Entered as second class matter at the 
Post Office at New York. N. Y.. January 
7. 1928. under the Act of March 3. 1879. 

N'OL. II, No. S. 

AUGUST, 1929 


notif}' us promptly, giving- also your 
old address, so we can correct mail- 

inar list. 


Among scientific men there is a con- 
tinuous exchange of facts and opinions, 
the discovery and passing along of new 
knowledge and a consequent recasting 
of old theories to fit the new facts. 
Theories are frankly held subject to 
change, held now because they seem 
best to fit the known facts, but pre- 
tending to no finality at all. And this 
attitude holds for even those opinions 
most firmly evidenced and accepted, as 
witness the Einstein criticism of the 
"law of gravitation." Which all goes 
to say that your typical scientist is 
modestly open-minded. To him there 
is no last word, no final authority. 

Therefore he is ever exploring, ever 
criticizing, ever thinking. Out of this 
comes more knowledge — and clearer 
theoretical guidance in the quest for 
still more truth. And it all comes of 
intellectual honesty which withholds 
no fact for fear of its logical con- 
sequences and spares no opinion what- 
ever its source. 

This attitude is one that fundamental- 
ists, set on proving their "word of 
God," cannot appreciate at its honest 
worth. When a scientific evolutionist 
revises his theory, be it in most minor 
detail, they distort it into a general 
retreat and proclaim it victoriously far 
and wide. He honestly states facts 
that cast doubt and they magnify that 
into full confession. Your scientist is 
being honest and they Jesuitical. That 
the truth may prevail, he states the 
whole case, doubts and all. For the 
"glory" of their gods they practice 
sophistry and appeal to prejudice. And 
so It is that he advances truth, while 
thev obstruct it. — .Mlau S. Broms. 


"When the subject (of life) is rea- 
soned about in terms of cause and ef- 
fect, one group of thinkers, who call 
themselves vitalists, holds that life is 
rh'.e to the presence in living organisms 
of some 'all-controlling, unknown, and 
unknow-able,. mystical, hyper-mechan- 
ical force.' Such a view of life is 
satisfying only to the reasoning of the 
dogmatic thinker. It does not prove 
helpful to the scientist because it 
closes the mind to observable and veri- 
fiable fact when in search for truth; 
it removes the whole subject of adap- 
tation to environment from the realm 
of investigation. No biologist makes 
use of such a working hypothesis — 
however useful the concept may be as 
a premise for the philosophical reason- 
ing of an absolutist. There is a tinge 
of vitalism in the philosophy of a 
goodly number of those who consider 
themselves scientific; but to this ex- 
tent they limit the range of their ob- 
servations — they inhibit the use of their 
powers of induction. 

"A far more satisfactory hypothesis 
or viewpoint for the study of vital 
phenomena, and one strictly in accord 
with scientific method, is called the 
mechanistic z'ieziK The vie-v\-point here 
taken is that this conception is con- 
sistent with the premises and working 
hypothesis used by the other natural 
scientists — the only one that is con- 
sistent with reasoning about the facts 
which stare the biologist in the face 
when he looks at the structure and 
functioning of ors?anic tissue through a 
microscope. In other words, the point 
of view which has proved of the 
greatest advantage for scientific ob- 
servation is, that life is a manifestation 
of energy in a neculiar kind of mechan- 
ism — 'a new kind of world stuff' which 
is the phvsical basis of biolotrical sci- 
ence." — H. H. Newman in "Modern 
Scientific Knowledge." 

should net study the earth or the stars, 
the plants, the animals, the growth of 
humanity." Luther Burbank says : 
"Those who would legislate against the 
teachings of evolution should also legis- 
late against gravity, electricity and the 
unreasonable velocity of light, and also 
should introduce a clause to prevent the 
use of the telescope, the microscope and 
the spectroscope or any other instru- 
ment of precision which inay in future 
l;e invented, constructed or used for the 
discovery of truth," Dr. Henry Fair- 
field Osborn expressed the views of all 
broadly educated men and women, and 
completely confuted the claims of "Bible 
opponents" of evolution, in saying: "No 
teacher can possibly teach zoology or 
any other branch of science truthfully 
and intelligently if evolution is left out; 
the cutting out of evolution from edu- 
cation is exactly like taking the heart 
from the body, for evolution is at the 
very heart or center of education and 
always will be." 

Anti-evolution laws will be ignored 
the same as the law against teaching 
that the earth moves. This also con- 
flicts with the Bible which states that 
Joshua made the sun stand still. Evolu- 
tion is now being taught in all three of 
our anti-evolution states, by calling it 
"development." What I object to is that 
these laws cultivate hypocrisy. They 
are turning our schools into "speak- 
easies" and our teachers into "boot- 
leggers." Bob Lyle, 


IT seems to worrv the fundamentalists 
a lot that "Evolution teaches an ef- 
fect or result without any cause." If 
evolution could teach the "cause" it 
would be an exception to all other 
natural laws. Does the law that "Water 
seeks its own level" teach anvthins about 
a cause? We know that water does seek 
its own level, because that hannens to 
be the wav this law operates. Through 
investigation we find that the earth pulls 
heavier obiects toward its center, and 
this is called the law of sravitv. Why 
accent these laws as perfectly natural, 
while demanding that evolution show 
some cause — a supernatural cause pre- 

Dr. David .Starr Jordan, of Leland 
Stanford Universitv. savs : "Kvoltitton 
nnd nature mean the same thine — 'Or- 
derly change.' To say that we should 
not study evolution is to say that we 


One of EVOLUTION'S most inter- 
ested friends, Mr, A. Nielen, a youth 
of eighty years, world traveler, philos- 
opher and photo artist, was a caller in 
New York last week. He delighted a 
group of New York readers of EVO- 
LUTION with a travelog, "A Trip 
Around The World," showing several 
hundred beautifully colored lantern 
slides of "the quaint, the queer and 
the beautiful," made from photos 
taken by himself. Mr. Nielen has an 
exceptional sense for the interesting 
and picturesque, and some of his slides 
are the most wonderful we have ever 
seen. His remarks while showing them 
were delightfully entertaining and con- 
tained many gems of wisdom. We 
look forward to another showing when 
he returns. 

Our next issue, Vol. II, No. 6, will 
be out the last of September, but 
drited October. 


The article on next page, "Our 
Knowledge of Man," by Dr, Hrdlicka 
of Smithsonian Institution, appeared 
as editorial in The Outlook, We shall 
reprint it also as a leaflet ($1.00 per 
100, $5.00 per 1,000). Help distribute 
it far and wide. 

August. 1929 

E \' O L U T I O N 

Page Nine 

Our Growing Knowledge of Man 

Reprinted by courtesy of The Outlook 

An endeavor to account for man's 
origin has been universal. Study of the 
myths and beliefs of different people^ 
.shows that there was no tribe, no eth- 
nic group, no religious unit, that did 
not have some theory, however crude, 
as to how man came into existence. 
And before science came in, once an 
idea became set in any group, it con- 
stituted a dogma which effectively 
stopped or greatly retarded further 
thought in that direction. Religious 
dogmas, being directly associated with 
the deities (revelations), became par- 
ticularly powerful. Had it not been 
for the Biblical account, especially, 
current thoughts about man's oi'igin 
and his knowledge of himself as w^ell 
as that of the rest of the living nature, 
would have developed much earlier. 

An analysis of the conceptions 
reached on the subject before the ad- 
vent of the scientific period, shows that 
the numerous forms group themselves 
into three main classes. They are: 
CI) wholly thaumaturgic, or (Z) partly 
supernatural and partly natural, or (?l^ 
essentially natural. 

The first class of theories regard 
man's origin as due to purely super- 
natural agencies and means, without 
speculating as to the details. Manv of 
the anthropogenies of primitive tribes 
of today. to,gether with those of some 
of the earlier Greeks, earlier Romans, 
and one of the versions of the Genesis, 
are or were of this nature. 

The second class of views is sub- 
divisible into two series. In the first, 
common to the Egyptians, all the 
Semitic peoples of .Asia Minor, some 
of the Greeks fthe Hephaestus myths') 
and to the second version of the 
Genesis, man's body is made of earthly 
materials (clay, bone, blood, etc.). with 
the life and soul added supernaturallv. 
In the second subclass of these beliefs, 
common to some of the American In- 
dians and others, man originates super- 
naturallv from subterranean or recent- 
ly emerged mythical birds or other 
animal forms. 

The third, naturalistic, or scientific 
category of theories may aeain be 
separated into two subclasses. The 
first, held bv some of the early Greek 
and other philosophers, such as Aris- 
totle, and surviving largely to this day. 
teach a natural, evolutionary origin of 
the body, but believe in a distinct and 
higher origin of the "soul:" while the 
others claim an evolutionary origin of 
all man's attributes, phvsical and in- 
tellectual. The great difticultv in both 
these lines is the lark of a definition of 
the concent of "soul." Man has never 
known clearly and does not know yet 
just what is his "soul." 

From the earliest time this tlrrd 
class of views as to man's origin dif- 

fered widely from both preceding ones 
in being based on actual observation. 
In the beginnings, in the time of .\nax- 
imander and his followers, the obser- 
vations were limited, imperfect und 
empirical; but men w-ere gradually rec- 
ognizing the close analogies between 
man and the rest of the organisms 
which surrounded him in the world. 

True scientific observations by 
learned men, however, and deductions 
on the problem of human origin began 
during the latter part of the Eight- 
eenth Century, and hence long before 
Charles Darwin. They attended on 
one hand the work of the anatomist 
and physiologist, on the other that of 
the naturalist and the geologist-paleon- 

Buffon, Erasmus Darwin, Goethe, 
Treviranus, Gall, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 
and a good number of others, headed 
eventually by Lamarck, and later Wal- 
lace, precede Charles Darwin; but it is 
the latter w'ho, in 1871, in his "Descent 
of Man," gives the first comprehensive 
treatise on the subjct. 

Buffon, Erasmus Darwin (grand- 
father of Charles) and above all La- 
marck, explained evolution by a grad- 
ual inheritance of "acquired characters'' 
or structural adaptations, brought forth 
by environmental conditions. For 
Charles Darwin and his close follow- 
ers, the essential factor in evolution, 
human or animal, was "natural selec- 
tion" or, as Herbert Spencer termed 
it, the "survival of the fittest," work- 
ing with the normal variation of every 
organism and of every part. Organ- 
isms vary; they also increase in num- 
bers; the numerical increase leads to 
competition and struggle for existence; 
and in this struggle the most "fit" and 
best adapted to their environment 
survive and adv;.nce' the group in their 

Since Lamarck and Darwin, the 
theory of human origin by evolution 
has been generally accepted by scien- 
tific men and enriched by a whole 
realm of observations and proofs, until 
what had originally been a theory has 
become one of the best documented 
pages of human knowledge. 

At present, the essentials of man's 
origin through evolution are estab- 
lished facts. Still uncertain are many 
of the details of the highly complex 
processes involved, the exact sources 
from which man developed and the 
causes and ways of his differentiation; 
but these do not affect the soundness 
of the main conclusion. 

Meanwhile science is endeavoring to 
solve more definitely the many still 
more or less obscure by-problems of 
human evolution. The efforts are part- 
ly a patient intensive search for ad- 
ditional material evidence, partly spec- 
ulation. It is the latter that is respon- 

sible for the various theories as to 
man's precise ancestry, the exact time 
of man's appearance, the true cradle- 
land of humanity and the actual modes 
of human evolution; theories that, be- 
cause of their variance, are by many 
mistaken for uncertainties of the main 
subject. It is such differences that 
may be seen in the recent writings of 
Osborn, Gregory, Clark and others. 
They depend on the basis and angle 
from which the still imperfectly ex- 
plored field is contemplated and on 
other individual conditions. Similar 
human gropings after truth, before it 
has been fully revealed in material 
facts, are common to all branches of 
science. They are the useful "working 
hypotheses" of science, lasting until 
they are shown to be erroneous, or 
until replaced by better conceptions. 
They help toward the eventual reach- 
ing and crystallization of human 

Already, however, the cultured man 
and woman are becomina less curious 
about their remote ancestors, less con- 
cerned about the past, and are direct- 
ing their attention to the next pro- 
blems, which are man's further differ- 
entiation in the nresent, with the prom- 
ises and indications for the future. 


The Reverend Professor Leander S. 
Keyser, D.D., in "Bible Champion," 
May. 1929, page 226: 

"That vehement propagandist, the 
magazine called Evnhition . . . tells 
us some of the authors and publish- 
ers of text-books are keeping evolu- 
tion in their books under cover in 
a decentive way . . . cut out the word 
'evolution' but inculcate {sic!) the 
doctrine in disguised form. Some 
people pronose simply to suhstitute 
the word- 'development' which may 
be used to describe the same doc- 
trine. Let the good people of Ten- 
nessee, Arkansas and Texas be on 
their guard . . . People should re- 
member that it is the theory of evo- 
lution that is not to be taught, by 
whatever name it poses." 
Now the curious thing about this 
passage is that "the theory of evolu- 
tion" is entirely legal for anybodv to 
teach all he likes anywhere in North 
.America. The only thing forbidden in 
"Tennessee, Arkansas and Texas" 
(the monkey states really are Tennes- 
see, Arkansas and Mississippi) is the 
Hcsccnt of man. If. then, "authors and 
publishers of textbooks" do not choose 
to exercise their legal ri'-'ht to include 
"the theory of evolution" itself under 
that particular name, or for that mat- 
ter if they do. why should the Rever- 
end Professor Keyser interfere with 
thoni- They are all within their rights 
under the actual statute. 

Hasn't the Reverend Professor read 
his own fool law? Or does he think 
that o'her people haven't? E. T. B. 

Page Ten 


August, 1929 


Two scientific expeditions from Am- 
erica are now in Africa studying the 
apes and primitive man, in both body 
and mind. One, sent by the American 
Museum of Natural History and the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
Columbia University, includes Henry 
C. Raven, Associate Curator of Com- 
parative Anatomy at the Museum, with 
extensive field experience in Africa and 
the East Indies; William K. Gregory, 
Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology 
at Columbia and author of "Our Face 
from Fish to Man" and other works on 
evolution; J. H. McGregor, Professor 
of Zoology at Columbia, authority on 
the anatomy of apes and man, and E. T. 
Engle of the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, specialist in endocrinology 
and physiology. 

They will study problems of man's 
evolutionary history and of his physical 
welfare in the future. On the medical 
side, studies will be made of posture 
and faulty mechanical adjustments, of 
the endocrine glands, of reproductive 
organs and processes, of blood tests 
and parasitic conditions. They hold 
that medical progress must be built 
upon broader knowledge of the funda- 
mental laws of life and health, upon a 
better understanding of the origin and 
functions of the structures of the 
human body. More specifically, the 
purposes of the expedition are: 

1. To bring back primate specimens 
for thorough anatomical, physiological 
and embryological studies under favor- 
able laboratory conditions. 

2. To make motion pictures and 
photographs of aboriginal tribes. 

3. To procure complete adult speci- 
mens of different species of gorilla, 
previous specimens of adults having 
been limited to skins an.d skeletons. 
Because the gorilla closely approaches 
man in body structures, this feature is 
of outstanding scientific value. 

The second expedition, headed by 
Harold C. Bingham, research associate 
of the Institute of Psychology at Yale, 
is working in the Belgian Congo under 
the auspices of the Carnegie Institution 
and Yale University, largely on prob- 
lems of ape psychology. Motion pic- 
tures will record the individual every- 
day life of the African mountain go- 
rillas in the reserve set aside by the 
Belgian Government for their preser- 
vation. Plans call for a whole year in 
the field. 

for it. Of course we can not send it 
free of charge, but we will be glad to 
supply Libraries at 60c. per year to 
the extent that our readers will fur- 
nish the funds. 

A good start for this LIBRARY 
FUND is given by contributions from 
two friends, A. Kalmanoff, $50, and 
\V. T. Bush, $20. 

Will you also help? Exery $3 will 
send EVOLITTION one year to five 
libraries. You may either specify the 
libraries, or leave the selection to us. 


A number of science teachers used 
EVOLUTION in their classes last 
year with splendid results. Some High 
School biology departments took 100 
copies of each issue. 

Our paid in advance bundle rate is 
only Sc per copy. A bundle of five for 
the nine issues that will appear during 
the school year amounts to $2.25, ten 
$4.50, etc. If you prefer we'll send 
you as many as you want on consign- 
ment at the regular news stand rate 
of 6c, to be paid after delivery. Simply 
write us how many to send you. .A.11 
school orders will begin with the Oc- 
tober issue, which will contain no 
commercial advertising. 


Many thousands of people would be 
reached by the message of EVOLU- 
TION if we could place the magazine 
in every Public and School Library 
Reading Room. Most libraries would 
be glad to display EVOLUTION in 
their reading room, even though their 
budgets do not permit them to pay 


Our closest friends know that we 
started without capital and have to 
raise several hundred dollars to bring 
out each issue. All surplus above pro- 
duction costs is used for promotion. 
When sufficient paid circulation has 
been achieved the magazine will be 
self-sustaining. In the meantime we 
invite readers to send funds, and we 
issue a share of our stock for every 
ten dollars sent. The following gave 
their support since the last issue: 

M. Vonsovici, $30.00; C. Peter A. 
Peterson, $10.00; Herman Prange, 
$3.00; Caspar Hodgson, $10.00; L. T. 

B. Light. $200.00; W. T. Bush, $20.00; 
Michael Cohn, $20.00; Joseph Block, 
$20.00 Martin Dewev, $200.00; John 
Dequer, $10.00 E. E. Free, S2.50; F. 
W. Hodge, $4.00; A. S. Keshin, $5.00; 

C. N. Clauder, $1.00; Anne Frese, 
$1.00; Bertha W. Howe. $3.00; E. S. 
Wertheim, $10.00; W. C. Michel. $2.00; 
Geo. Welby Van Pelt, $2.00; A Friend, 
$25.00: Mignon Talbot, $10.00; L. D. 
Abbott, $1.00; Mrs. T. M. Nagle, $5.00; 
Eda B. Schenk?r. $4.00; Thos. Capek. 
$4.00 Minot Simons, $5.00; B. C. 
Gruenberg, $5.00; J. David Houser, 
$5.00; Tobias Sigel. $10.00; A. L. 
Davis, $2.00; Wm. F. Welling, $.50; Ed. 
Hevn, $1.00; Anna Reinstein, $1.00; 
Lucy Hall, $5.00. 

The work can be pushed just to the 
extent that funds are furnished. Will 
you join this goodly group? To help 
spread the message of EVOLUTION. 

The Calf Path 

Sam W-\lter Foss 

One day through the primeval wood 

.\ calf walked home as good calves 

But made a trail all bent askew, [should, 

A crooked trail, as all calves do. 

Since then three hundred years have fled, 

.^nd I infer the calf is dead. 

But still he left behind his trail. 

And thereby hangs my moral tale. 

The trail was taken up next day 
By a lone dog that passed that way. 
And then a wise bell-wether sheep 
Pursued the trail o'er hill and steep; 
And drew the flock behind him, too. 
As good bell-wethers always do. 
And from that day, o'er hill and glade, 

Through those old woods a path was 

.\nd many men wound in and out. 
And dodged and turned and bent about. 
And uttered words of righteous wrath 
Because 'twas such a crooked path ; 
But still they followed — do not laugh — 
The first migrations of that calf. 
And through the winding wood-way 

Because he wabbled when he walked. 

This forest path became a lane 
That bent and turned and turned again ; 
This crooked lane became a road. 
Where many a poor horse with his load 
Toiled on beneath the burning sun, 
-And travelled some three miles in one. 
-And thus a century and a half 
They trod the footsteps of that calf. 

The years passed on in swiftness fleet, 
The road became a village street; 
.And this, before men were aware, 
A city's crowded thoroughfare. 
And soon the central street was this 
Of a renowned' metropolis ! 
.And men two centuries and a half 
Trod in the footsteps of that calf. 

Each day a hundred thousand rout 
Followed the zigzag calf about, 
.And o'er his crooked journey went 
The traffic of a continent. 
.A hundred thousand men were led 
By one calf three centuries dead. 
They followed still his crooked way, 
-And lost a hundred years a day ; 
For thus such reverence is lent 
To well established precedent. 

.A moral lesson this might teach 
Were I ordained and called to preach ; 
For men are prone to go it blind 
.Along the calf-paths of the mind, 
.And work away from sun to sun 
To do what other men have done. 
They follow in the beaten track, 
-And out and in, and forth and back. 
-And still their devious way pursue. 
To keep the path that others do. 
They keep the path a sacred groove. 
.Along which all their lives they move; 
Rut how the wise old wood-gods laugh, 
Who saw the first primeval calf. 

Ah, many things this tale might teach — 
But I am not ordained to preach. 

August, 1929 


Page Elevex 

The Amateur Scientist 

A Monthly Feature conducted by Allan Strong Broms 

We rarely have trouble distinguish- 
ing plants from animals. Usually ani- 
mals can move and plants not, animals 
having nervous reaction systems, 
while plants have not. But Venus Fly- 
trap and various sensitive plants do 
react by movement and some very low 
one-celled plants actually travel. Also, 
sponges, which are animals, anchor 
themselves and just vegetate. So tlie 
scientist amplifies the popular tests by 
considering methods of getting food. 
details of structure, development, be- 
havior, etc. But even the scientist is 
stuck when he meets the slime-mold-. 

jelly has disappeared shaping itself into 
most elaborate and beautiful spore 
bearing fruits. These are distinctive 
for each species and are easy to pre- 
serve. If you know what to look for, 
you can probably find some in your 
own yard. 

But the first time you had better get 
a guide who knows w^hat to look for 
and where. But guides are few. The 
New York Microscopical Society has 
one in Robert Hagelstein who has spe- 
cialized on the iIyceto::oa, for he thinks 
them animals, and takes us on a couple 
of "hunting trips" during the year. 

Three common slime-molds on decaying wood; sporangia of Trichia; of Stemonitis 
(Plasmodium remnant at base) ; and of Hemitrichia (with Plasmodium) 

He does not know for sure what they 
are — plants or animals. Some think 
them plants and call them Myxomy- 
cetes (slime-fungi), while others dis- 
agree and call them Mycetozoa 

What makes the slime-mold so mys- 
terious is that it lives its feeding life 
as a moving animal, and then settles 
down and reproduces itself by very ob- 
vious plant spores. As an animal, its 
working body is a mass of naked jelly 
called a Plasmodium, suggesting the 
term "slime," which slips along slowly 
and engulfs its food like that simplest 
of known animals, the amoeba. While 
common in forests, in black soil, 
fallen leaves and decaying logs, it 
is seldom noticed, its shapeless yel- 
low or other colored mass look- 
ing like nothing in particular. 
The Plasmodium lives in wood and sub- 
stratumand appears on the surface only 
when ready to fruit ; sometimes it seems 
to be nothing but a wet spot on the log; 
usually it is inconspicuously small, oc- 
casionally eight inches across. 

It is easiest to recognize at its plant 
stage, although it is then just a scatter- 
ing of small, almost microscopic, 
spore cases. But it really looks like 
something, especially if you get a good 
close-up through a magnifying lens. 
Almost over night, the Plasmodium 

Sunday morning, July 7th, for instance, 
we boarded the ten o'clock Long Isl- 
and train in New York for Mineola 
where he met us. He took us to a 
damp forest kettle-hole on the edge 
of the terminal moraine left by the last 
great Ice sheet. First he warned us 
against poison ivy and gave us an anti- 
dote to wash our hands with (one part 
of ferrous chloride to nine parts each 
of water and glycerine). Next he 
showed us samples from his own col- 
lection and then turned us loose among 
the dead leaves and rotting logs. 

We found plenty of sporangia, but 
only two or three Plasmodia, One of 
the latter was a greenish-yellow net- 
work of slime on the end of a dead 
twig. Another was just a "wet spot" 
on a piece of bark, but the wetness 
showed a pattern, and sporangia were 
already grown from part of it. Our 
real harvest was in sporangia. Each of 
us carried a cigar box and a supply 
of pins. When we found a colony of 
sporangia, we broke or cut off a piece 
of the wood or leaf and pinned it to the 
bottom of the box. This keeps the 
specimens from tumbling around and 
breaking the very delicate spore cases. 
The later preserving is just a matter of 
thorough drying and the keeping away 
of insects. 

Our guide told us we had a really 


We have arranged a course of ten 
lectures to be given Saturday evenings, 
Oct. 12 to Dec. 14, inclusive, in the 
Labor Temple, 14th Street and Second 
Avenue, New York. 

The general subject will be "Evo- 
lution: The Master Key," the idea be- 
ing not merely to present the conven- 
tional evidence for evolution, but 
■ rather to show how the idea of evo- 
lution illumines every field of natural 
science today. 

Four of the lectures will be given 
by Allan Strong Broms, our science 
editor, whose course of lectures was 
so well received last spring. The other 
six will be offered by authorities in the 
fields of Biology, Anthropology, As- 
tronomy, Geology, Psychology and 
Education who will tell how the fact 
of evolution helps them to solve their 
special problems. Detailed announce- 
ment will appear in our next issue. 

In the meantime we invite our 
friends to take course tickets in ad- 
vance to furnish the necessary funds 
for advertising. Admission to single 
lectures will be 50c, but those order- 
ing in advance will get HALF PRICE, 
that is TWO tickets for the entire 
course of ten lectures for $5.00. May 
we hear from you? 

The Duck-baied Platypus 

A Rhyme, 
by Walter C, Kr.\atz 
Of all the Mammals the one most queer, 
On all this wide, old, mundane sphere. 
Is the so-called duck-billed platypus. 
Four legs and fur like a regular "cuss"; 
But minus teeth ; has bill for eats. 
Though nourishing young on tiny teats. 
She lays her eggs like a regular bird, 
Or reptile, no matter if it seems absurd. 
It means to us who are able to think : 
This beast is a real connecting link. 

poor day, though we felt quite happy 
in having found so many after such a 
recent opening of our eyes. But it 
seems there are three hundred species 
throughout the world and this one 
kettle-hole had already yielded about a 
hundred, a couple of them quite new. 
We had nothing like that and he was 
really disappointed, for he knew his 
logs by their first names and expected 
much more of them, especially when 
he brought company. However, there 
is another day coming, for the slime- 
molds are to be found from March to 
December, and we are to have another 
"hunt" on September 29th, the same 
guide, the same place, the same train, 
and the same good time. Incidentally, 
everyone is invited. .Tust bring your 
lunch and a hand magnifier. 

Page Twelve 


August, 1929 

{Continued from Page 7) 
he did it it proved a transvaluation of all values and 
the degradation of all moralities. 

As an American citizen born in this country, after 
generations and generations of ancestral voters, I 
stand for my land, and while my voice lasts, I expect 
to lift it up in opposing a doctrine that hasn't a scin';ilia 
of evidence in the heaven above, the earth beneath, or 
the waters under the earth. (Applause.) 

I say as a father of six children, as a teacher of f"ur 
hundred in my school, as a taxpayer, and consequeurly 
a citizen, I shall do my utmost to put this thing out of 
the public schools of America. I thank you. 

(Applause and hisses.) 

* * * 

THE CHAIRMAN: Professor McCabe will now 
close with five minutes. 

this audience must be entirely fundamentalist and is 
trying to prevent me from getting my precious five 
minutes (referring to prolonged applause). (Laughter.) 

Dr. Riley, as I expected, in his first speech declined 
to follow the lead that I gave him and waited until 
his second speech, knowing that I have only five min- 
utes to answer that Niagara of argument that he put 
out. The order of this meeting has been altered at the 
request of Dr. Riley. After the second speech we were 
to have ten minutes each in which we might have deah 
more or less satisfactorily with each other. As it is, 
what do you expect me to do in five minutes? For- 
tunately, the greater part of what Dr. Riley said was 
entirely irrelevant to this debate tonight. 

f VOICES: Right! Hooray! Appbuse.) 

I am appealing only to such members of this audience 
as are going to give us a sober, intellectual verdict on 
the question. The best thing that I could do to give Dr. 
Riley a chance was this : to inform him that all scien- 
tific men are agreed. I do not count noses. I did not 
ask you to believe evolution because all scientific men 
are agreed. I said if they are all agreed, you will ex- 
pect something very serious and very substantial from 
Dr. Riley. Did you get it? (VOICES : No.) 

So far as my analysis goes, he has at last given me 
one thing to reply to. I told him that all the facts of 
the universe are in keeping with evolution. He asked 
me to run over all the facts of the universe and show 
it. (Laughter.) Surely, the best opportunity I could 
give Dr. Riley was to tell me one that is inconsistent. 
That is logic. Tell me one that is inconsistent and my 
case falls. At last I got one supposed inconsistency, 
the bees. (Laughter.) And once more Dr. Riley does 
not know the elements of the subject. (Laughter.) 

Of fourteen families of bees twelve have no means 
of making wax or using wax whatever, and the only 
fossil bees we have belong to those families that never 
make any wax whatever. Dr. Riley said the bees and 
ants are the oldest forms of life. They are, on the con- 
trary, amongst the youngest. 

I claim, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I claim 
that I put before you this statement : The whole uni- 
verse is the basis of evolution, and Dr. Rilev must 

show you facts which will bring that statement to the 
ground and show things inconsistent with evolution. 
He has not done so. I claim, therefore, in conclusion, 
that this anti-evolution campaign is founded upon a 
complete ignorance of scientific teaching. (Applause.) 

Dr. Riley has accused me of insulting America. I 
have been for ten years the most friendly interpreter 
of American life in the whole of Europe. Never for 
a single moment have I said a word against America. 
That is why I am here before you tonight. 

Well, I submit to you that the doctrine of evolution 
is proved. This anti-evolution doctrine, which has 
made America conspicuous before the educational 
world, is not proved. It rests upon complete — not only 
complete ignorance, but complete misrepresentation of 
science from beginning to end. ( Applause. ) And 
while I admit that parents can determine what shall 
be taught to their children, I do not admit that any 
expert people shall not freely tell parents what is true 
and what is not true. Who is going to decide? Ladies 
and gentlemen, I put it up to you. You have seen to- 
night how the anti-evolution campaign in America is 
engineered. (Applause.) 

I appeal to you. This is my last word, and believe 
me as in other matters I have been explaining in Eng- 
land for years what is the meaning of the funda- 
mentalist campaign. I ask that New York shall at last 
assert its rightful position as the cultural leader of one 
of the greatest civilizations of modern times. I ask that 
.\merica shall purge its intellectual prestige of this 
stain that has been imposed upon it, and that you will 
be prepared to lead, not only your States, but lead 
the world in wisdom and in justice and in peace. 

(Prolonged applause.) 

^ * tf 

The Chairman took a rising vote of the audience, 

which expressed itself at least ten to one in favor of 

Evolution and Prof. McCabe. The vote recorded by 

the official judges was 12 for the Affirmative and 17 

for the Negative, but the poll of the High School Class 

seated on the stage as unofficial judges was 36 to 5 in 

favor of the Affirniative. 


SOME of our friends can not understand how we could 
select judges for the New York evolution debate who 
could vote 17 to 12 in favor of the fundamentaHst. In fair- 
ness to Prof. McCabe we should explain. The original 
plan was to have 16 judges selected by EVOLUTION, 15 
by friends of Dr. Riley, and 1 by mutual agreement. The 
afternoon of the debate we had secured our 16 acceptances, 
but only 5 of Dr. Riley's Committee had accepted. So, with 
our consent, he invited a long list of friends, and since he 
could not tell beforehand which ones would come we 
agreed to pass them all through at the front door with the 
understanding that the proper number would be selected to 
sit as judges when they arrived backstage. 

Not all of the judges selected by EVOLUTION showed f 
up, but enough of Dr. Riley's friends arrived to bring the 
total list up to 29. The gentleman in charge of the stage 
did not know one from the other and seated them all. There 
was some discussion regarding the matter when the vote 
was about to be taken, but it was then too late to do any- 
thing about it, and Dr. Riley is entitled to all the consola- 
tion that he can derive from the judges" decision under the 

August. 1929 


Page Thirteen 


EDGE, edited bj^ Frederick A. 
Cleveland. Ronald Press, $4.50. 

This one-volume Outline of Modern 
Science deserves reading. Unlike that 
otherwise excellent "Outline" by 
Thomsorf (adequate only as an "Out- 
line of Biology"), it really covers the 
whole field. Written originally by a 
number of authors, its several sections 
vary in excellence, but remain popu- 
lar throu.ghout. One would expect 
marked gaps and duplications in a 
symposium of this sort, but it has 
been so well edited and obviously re- 
written that it has the continuity and 
coherence of single authorship. 

The introductory section deals ap- 
preciatively with the scientific method 
and the place of science in modern life 
and thinking. The contrast with the 
unscientific thinking of the theological 
and other "absolutists" is forcefully 
set forth in a way that leaves little to 
be desired. 

Much of the material is necessarily 
"old stuff," but very properly emphasis 
is placed on recent scientific develop- 
ments. The chapters on atomic physics 
and chemistry, on the colloidal state 
of matter and on genetics are note- 
worthy. Especially so are those on 
Psychology, in which the viewpoint is 
illuminatingly evolutionary and be- 
havioristic, as is suggestively indicated 
by each of several chapter headings 
containing the words "adjustive 
mechanism." It is to be regretted 
that the inconsequential chapters on 
Personality and especially those on 
Sociology do not continue this key- 
note, but lapse into a static and legal- 
istic treatment that fails completely in 
outlining the really basic achieve- 
ments in social science, and so finish 
most weakly a valuable book other- 
wise excellently conceived and done. 

The text is sparingly, yet adequate- 
ly, illustrated with well chosen and 
pertinent drawings from a wide range 
of sources. Nearly every chapter is 
followed by bibliographies and review 
questions for the benefit of the more 
thorough student. Each question is 
stated suggestively and followed by a 
brief list of references. In addition 
there are two general bibliographies 
with each chapter, one for popular 
reading, the other technical. These 
special features add much to the value 
of the volume as a textbook and as a 
busy man's guide to the basic facts 
^ and principles of modern scientific 
▼ knowledge. A. S. B. 


No wonder science puzzles us. 
Such noble names it plies; 
Who'd ever dream ichneumondes 
Were tiny, tiny flies? — Ex. 

NEW WORLD. By A. Hyatt 
Verrill. Bobbs-Merrill Company, 393 
pages. Illustrated. $5. 

The most fascinating and at the same 
time the most perplexing field of ar- 
chaeology is the study of the pre-his- 
tory of Central and South America. 
Henry George's words, "Behind dead 
empires, dim ghosts of empire loom," 
were never more aptly applied than to 
the vast ruins and remains of Mexico, 
Panama, Colombia, Honduras, Ecua- 
dor, Bolivia, and Peru. The casual 
reader who fancies that all of Ameri- 
can archaeology is comprised in a sur- 
vey of the Mayas, the Aztecs, and the 
miscalled Incas, with a side glance at 
the Mound Builders, the Clifif Dwell- 
ers, and a few other extinct peoples of 
our own continent, is due for both a 
shock and a thrill in Dr. Verrill's ab- 
sorbing and enlightening book. 

Who were the Code dwellers, whose 
city Dr. Verrill himself discovered? 
Who were the Chimus? The Chibchas? 
The Tiahuanacans? The Pre-Incans? 
The Toltecs — if such a race ever ex- 
isted? The Nascas? The builders of 
the pink porphyry cities of Peru? 
Where did these various peoples come 
from? When did they flourish? Why 
was their empire destroyed in each 
case, and when? Why is there in no 
instance any gradual development of a 
culture, but utterly dissimilar civiliza- 
tions appear full-grown, without an- 
tecedents? Why were the tropics, 
where progress is usually slowed up, in 
.America the scene of the greatest civil- 
izations, whereas temperate South and 
North America displayed no such phe- 
nomenon? Were any of these peoples 
related or culturally connected, and if 
so, which? 

These and many other questions Dr. 
Verrill can answer only by saying, 
"We do not know. In a day or a year 
we may discover the answer, but at 
present the problem is insoluble." One 
thing he does know, however, and 
gives the evidence for — the vast an- 
tiquity of man, and of civilized man, in 

"Old Civilizations of the New 
World" is written by a man who is 
not only a real authority on his sub- 
ject, but also a rarely interesting 
writer. In dealing with the better 
known civilizations, those of the Az- 
tecs, the Mayas, and the Inca dynasty 
nf Peru, he is no less enthralling in his 
narrative than when he is revealing for 
the first time in popular form the 
knovi-n facts of the still more mysteri- 
ous and obscure peoples of South Am- 
erica. Discoverer not only of Code, 
in Panama, "the Pompeii of America," 
l)ut also of the only wheels known in 
the remains of prehistoric America, 
and, in his earlier work as a zoologist, 
of the supposedly extinct Solcuodoti 
I'liradoxus, in Santo Domingo, and of 
the strange bearded Indians of Bolivia, 
he seems to have a genius for bringing 

to light new and pregnant finds in two 
distinct branches of science. 

Diffidently I suggest a possible ex- 
planation of one of his minor mysteries 
in this book. In commenting on the im- 
possibility that such work as must 
have been done by several of these 
extinct races could have been accom- 
plished with the very crude stone im- 
plements which alone are found with 
them — work which ranges from abso- 
lutely true fitting of massive stone 
building blocks, or intricate lacework 
designs cut out of solid rock, to en- 
graved gold beads smaller than the head 
of a pin — Dr. Verrill states that he 
finds no possible explanation why, 
granting that metal instruments might 
have disappeared (though this is im- 
probable if they were deposited with 
the finds, for even feather-work and 
textiles are preserved in that dry at- 
mosphere), the badly made stone tools 
and weapons should be there at all. Is it 
not possible that they were left just 
because they were useless — because 
they were ancient, or imitations of the 
ancient, and had a religious signifi- 
cance? Most of these ruins are of 
temples, and we know to this day how 
outworn customs and implements are 
still retained in church ritual. The 
workers, in other words, took their de- 
veloped tools home with them; but the 
stone axes used by their remote an- 
cestors had a place of honor at the 

Be that as it may, a book like this 
fires one to wonder and contemplation. 
"Old Civilizations of the New World" 
is literally a truly inspiring work. 

Maynard Shipley. 

Evolution Bonk Shelf 


Ediled by Fredk A. Cleveland $4.0(1 


WORLD : A. Hyatt Verrill 5.00 

WHAT IS DARWINISM : T. H. Morgan. . $1.00 

K. Gregory 4.50 


R. \V. G. Hhigslon 2.50 


ley 2.50 

This puzzling PLjVNET: Edwin Teu- 

iiej- lirewbler 4.00 

A-ll-C OF EVOLUTION : Joseph McCabe 1.75 

Frederick Tilney 25.00 

.MV HERESY: Uisliop Wni. M. Brown.. 2.U0 

Clement Wood 5.00 

SCIENCE VS. DOGMA: C. T. Sprading 1.50 
GROWING UP: Karl De Sehweiuitz. . . . 175 

iiy F'rances .Mason 5 00 

LET FREEDO.M RING: Arthur Garfield 

Hays 2.50 

FARE: Henshaw Ward 5. 00 


Shipley 3.00 


Tlli;ORIES : Brewster 3.50 

THE BIBLE UN.M.\SKED: Joseph Lewis 1.15 

Arthur Keith 2.00 

ORH.IN OF SPECIES: Darwin 1.00 

MANS PLACE IN NATURE: Huxley... 1.00 

EVOLUTION: Monthly, One Year 1.00 

Send postpaid l)v 
EVOLUTION. 96 Fifth Avenue. New York. 

Pace Fourteen' 


August, 1929 

Desk Room for Rent 

Inquire: EVOLUTION, Room 
96 Fifth Ave., Watkins 7587. 



ING where artists and radicals write 
books, teach children, compose music 
apd do other worth while things all 
the year through. It has a brook, 
beautiful woods, many fine views of 
the Hudson, running water, electric 
light and telephones. It adjoins the 
village of Croton-on-Hudson, is one 
hour from Grand Central, and has the 
best commuting service out of New 
York City. Twenty-five houses and 
bungalows now on the property and 
building going on steadily. Minimum 
size plots, !4 acre with improvements. 
$600 to $700. Cash or terms. 
Inquire Harry Kelly, 104 Fifth Ave.. 
Tel. Watkins 7581. 



on the Hudson 


a 23-room 


building. Gar- 


With all 

modern conveniences. | 


hours from 


Y'ork. Bargain 

for q 

uick sale. 


N. S 


65 W. 


St., New York. 


only stock in New York, 
575 Pacific Street, Brooklyn. 

Back Nos. McCabe's Key to 

Culture — and all 
Haldeman- Julius Publications. 

now forming, a general education 
along liberal lines. Send name and 
address to P. O. Box 899, 

City Hall Station, N. Y. City. 

guided the making of 


Unique, Ociginal, Masterful. 

The Explorer's Sign 25c 

The Scientist's Ladder 50c 

The Outline of Knowledge 50c 

The Chart of the Mind 50c 

Wall Size: 

Parallel History of America, 

England, France and Spain, 

from 1480 to 1770 A. D., 

and UnitcdStatcs from 1770 

to 1925 1.00 

Bible History, according to 
The Bible, from 4000 B. 

C. to 100 A. D 50c 

First Editions just off the press. 


Box 1594, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 


When will the world realize that in 
evolution it has taken an adder to its 
bosom? Will it awake to the truth be- 
fore its lifeblood is completely drained 
by the serpent it now fondles? — Editorial 
in Signs of the Times, March 19, 1929. 

We congratulate the people of Ar- 
kansas upon what they have accom- 
plished for the protection of the faith 
and morals of the youth of their state 
by decreeing that they shall not be 
taught that they are the descendents of 
the brutes. And we congratulate theai 
because they had the keenness to foresee 
the baleful eflfect of the teaching of this 
brutal doctrine upon their youth. — Dr. 
R. .\. Meek in the Southern Methodist. 

They (evolutionists) put everything in 
the universe on the basis of natural law, 
and inevitably, therefore, the super- 
natural phases of Christ and His life — 
His deity, His miracles, His incarnation. 
His atonement, His bodily resurrection — 
must ix discarded by them . . . The re- 
jection of the supernatural is a direct 
blow to Christianity. All religion is 
supernatural . . . But more particularly, 
the current movement away from the 
supernatural is absolutely fatal to 
Christianity. Cliristianity is the most 
supernatural of all the reUi/ions of the 
v.'orld.~.\. L. Baker and F. D. Nichol. 
from book "Creation — Not Evolution," 
pages 119-120. 

The One who made the heavens, the 
world, and man, was the One who gave 
us the Bible. The Maker knows the 
thing He has made. There can be no 
mistake when He speaks of the laws of 
Nature, because He instituted those laws. 
God gave us the Bible as a textbook in 
salvation, not in astronomy, zoology, or 
physiology : but when He sees fit to 
cite a fact from these fields, H-e knows 
whereof He speaks. The evolutionists 
should check up by Him, not He by 
theiu ; for as the heavens are higher 
than the earth, so are His ways higher 
than their ways, and His thoughts than 
their thoughts. — Same, p. 152. 

Science League of America 

For Freedom in Science Teaching 

Every sympathizer invited to Join. 

Fee: Annual, $3; Lite, $25 

Write for pamphlet. 

504 Gillette Bldg., San Francisco 

American Secular Union 

stands for the principles proclaimed in 
the Nine Demands for Liberalism or 
the complete separation of church and 
state. Organized 1876. Incorporated 
1900 under the laws of Illinois. A rep- 
resentative national organization, man- 
aged by a board of directors, elected 
by the membership every third year. 
Annual membership, $1.00; Life, $10.00 

Address all communications to 

W. L. MACLASKEY, Secretary, 
P. O. Box 1109, Chicago, Illinois. 


National Freethought Weekly 

Established 1873 

$5.00 per year 
Three months, $1. Foreign, $1.15 

49 Vesey Street, New York 


Catalogue of anti-religious books free 


119 East 14th St. New York City 



Evolution, Science, Histoid, so fas- 
cinating that you will read it again 
and again. One college professor said, 
*The completeness of the discussion 
and logical connections are remark- 


Wilson, Kansas. 


Postpaid 35c 

Jesus Christ Was an Evolutionist 

The Bible teaches this law of nature 
very plainly. 

The essay that won the Los Angeles 
Examiner prize. 

Sent for ten cents. 

Address: S. J. BROWNSON, M.D. 

Soldiers' Home, Sawtelle, Calif. 



is founded organized, incorporated and chartered by the state of Kansas to teach 
the discovered truths of nature that there is no real God, tliat man has no soul 
and that death ends life mind and consciousness forever. 

It is the evolution of "The Church" from a heathenizing institution to a civil- 
izing institution, from a teacher of educational insanity to a teacher of educational 
sanity, from a teacher of lies on nature to a teacher of nature's truths. Get, read 
and study its books advertised below and then send me your church membership 
application. The plans are to have a local C. O. H. in every community served 
by an instructor on annual salary in time. w. h. KERR. President-Secretery. 



That no Real God or Soul Exists Blasts Out the Foundation Pillars of all 
Religions in the Mind of Those Who Learn Them 
All Gods Dethroned and Man Enthroned as Supreme Being of Earth 
The World Harmonizes as all Religions Become Obsolete 
Man's Knowledge Extended Beyond the Grave, and What Be- 
comes of the Dead Revealed, and the Mystery of the Ages Solved. 

Vol. 1— KERR'S DISCOVERIES \ 50c each 
Vol. 2— JESUS ANALYZED ( post paid 

Address the Author, Founder and President of The Church of Humanity, 
W. H. KERR, 2210 Broadway, Great Bend, Kansas. 


Was $2.50 
Now only $1.00 

Endors-id by Famous 

" 'The Bible Unmasked' 
is a brilliant and daring 
feat of honest scholarship 
. . . every thinking man 
and woman will appreciate 
its great merits."' 

—William J. Fielding, 
Celebrated Author. 

"I have read with sus- 
tained enjoyment Joseph 
Lewis' book, 'The Bible 

"If the religionists will 
read Mr. Lewis' book, it 
will do them good." 

—Rev. A. \V. Slaten, 

Minister, West Side 

Unitarian Church, N. Y. 

"Words fail to describe 
the extraordinary method 
that Joseph Lewis pur- 
sues in 'The Bible Un- 
masked' to belittle that 
work ... he noses out 
all the passages concerned 
with adultery, incest and 
other violent crimes 
against accepted morals 
and holds them up as 
horrible examples of what 
the young girl should not 

—The New York World. 

"If you care to read 
about the other side of 
the picture, 'The Bible 
Unmasked' presents it. 
Joseph Lewis has spared 
no pains to extract the 
UBipleasant scenes from 
the Bible and to draw his 
conclusions as to its na- 
ture and its unfitness as 
a book to be allowed in 
the hands of children— or 
to be passed through the 

— From the Bookman, 
New York City. 

"The work is a com- 
mendable one and a 
strong appeal to reason. 
An onen mind will be 
incited to some lively 
thinking by it. . . . I 
could easily eet up and 
shout for Mr. Lewis 
without much effort." 

— F-douard Keleieh. 
The Yonkers Star. 

"I read 'The Bible Un- 
masked' through and could 
hardly lay it down long 
enough to go and eat a 

— E. A. Slater. 
Freeport, Mich. 

"T h.ive read Joseph 
Lewis* book 'The Bible 
T'nmasked'. and consider 
it the mo-it valuable con- 
'ributinn of its kind that 
Ins ever been published. 
A copy of this book should 
he in the hnnds of every 
honest, thinkinjr man and 
woman in America. 

"T wish it might be pos- 
sible to compel each of the 
t--o hundred and fifteen 
thousand clergymen in the 
T'nited States to read 
every word of it to the 
ndnlt men of their consre- 
L'ations. Then, as a fur- 
ther punishment to the 
ministers, they should be 
prosecuted for corrupting 
the morals nf men by 
rending the Bible to them. 

"More power to Mr. 
Lewis* elbow.'* 

-E. S. West, 
Lieut. Col. U. S. A. 

NOW ONLY $1.00 


Everybody knows something about the Scriptures. All of us are 
vaguely familiar with it. But few really know exactly what it con- 
tains. Some people w^ho have "read" the Bible all their lives are 
astounded when the real truth is brought to their attention. 

Once the Bible was held to be supreme in science, art, philosophy. 
Today we no longer accept it for any of these things. In every 
field of knowledge which has effected human happiness and prog- 
ress, the authority- of the Bible has been rejected. 

Today it is still claimed for the Scriptures that they give man 
a workable code of morals. But is that true? We know that the 
Bible has been prove'd wrong in all of its claims to authority. It 
is only natural, then, that even this last shred of authority should 
be doubted. And this last claim is torn away from the Bible by 
Joseph Lewis, in his astounding book, "The Bible Unmasked." An 
eminent writer has declared this book to be "the most daring ex- 
posure of modern times, and recalls the satire of Voltaire, the reason 
of Paine and the eloquence of Ingersoll." The conclusions of this 
indomitably amazing book cannot be avoided. It is a challenge to 
the entire world. 

Ministers must read it to defend themselves. Religious believers 
will be shocked at the revelations of what they have blindly and 
obediently accepted as divine truth. 

Thinking men and women will be happy to welcome this latest 
step of advance thought. 

The Coupon Saves You $1,50 

So great has been the demand for this book, and 
so widespread the controversy occasioned by its 
publication, that in this country alone five large 
editions have already been sold at the regular price 
of $2.50 a copy, but both the author and publisher 
want this book to be put into the hands of every 
thinkins man and ivoinan in America and are now 
offering for only $1.00 a copy plus 15c for packing 
and delivery charges. 

The present edition is limited to only 10.000 copies. 
At this bargain price of only $1.00 a copy the edition 
will be gone quickly. "The Bible Unmasked" con- 
tains 288 pages, printed on fine antique book paper, 
and beautifully bound in dark maroon cloth. Order 
it now while we still have the privilege of sending 
it to you. Canadian orders will not be accepted, as 
this book has been prohibited in Canada. Mail the 
coupon at once — and so be sure that you are in time. 
Buy several copies and pass them on to those who 
need them. 

Now only $L00 
Was $2.50 

Read This 

Amazing Table 

of Contents 


Abram and Sarai 

"Sporting", or Isaac, and 
His Wife Rebekah 

Incest, or, Lot and His 

Jacob, Leah and Rachel 

Joseph and Potiphar's 

Judah and His Daughter- 
in-law Tamar 

The 19th Chapter of 

King David of Israel and 
His Wives 

The Story of Ruth 

King Solomon and His 

The Book of Esther 

The New Testament 

The Virgin Birth, or 
Mary, the Holy Ghost, 
Joseph and Jesus 

The Virgin Birth Ac- 
cording to St. Luke 

Elisabeth, Angel Gabriel 
and Zacharias, or the 
Seduction of Elisabeth 
According to the Gos- 
pel of St. Luke 

Jesus and The Sinner 


The Creed of Science 


The Freetliought Press Ass'n, 

i2.10 West Mth Street, New York. Ev. 5 

I wish to take advantage of your generous 
oiTer to secure a copy of Joseph Lewis' daring 
book, "The Bible Unmasked." printed on antique 
book paper, containing 28S pages, and bound in 
maroon cloth, at the special price of only $1.00 
plus l.^c for delivery charges. 






A special combinatiou offer of Mr. Lewis' 
brochures, "Lincoln the Freethinker," 
"Franklin the Freethinker," "Jefferson the 
Freethinker,'* together with a copy of Mr. Lewis' 
eloquent radio addresses on "Lincoln the 
Soldier" and "Gems from Ingersoll" will be sent 
for only 50c additional. It wanted put X in 

square and add 50c to your remittance. 

Check here if you desire book sent C.O.D. 



(When writing to advertisers please mention EVOLUTION.) 


Let your religious friends read 

the stenographic record of 

The Great Evolution Debate 

Prof. Jos. McCabe and Rev. W. B. Riley 

published complete in three issues of 


(Riley refused to publish it in his magazine.) 

25c postpaid. To 10 or more addresses, 20c. 

EVOLUTION, 96 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

The Proofs of Evolution 


Appeared originally as series of articles in EVO- 
LUTION. Resulting demand necessitated republica- 
tion as booklet. Simplest, clearest explanation of the 
evidence for evolution, empliasizing its significance 
rather tliaii reciting its details. 

10c. each, 15 for $1.00, $5.00 per hundred. 

Sent postpaid on receipt of price. 

EVOLUTION, 96 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

A New Departure 

SEVERAL NEW FEATURES will begin in the next issue of 
will be written by Edwin Tenney Brewster, author of "Creaf /on; 
A History of Non- Evolutionary Theories and of this Puzzling 
Planet." Mr. Brewster will conduct a column of rebuttal, disposing 
of the claims of fundamentalists one by one. We shall also start 
publishing a page of "SCIENCE NEWS, " a "QUESTION BOX" 
and a "BIBLIOGRAPHY" of articles appearing in other maga- 
zines that should be of interest to evolutionists. 

To make room for these new departments we had thought of 
increasing the number of pages and the price of EVOLUTION. But 
we are convinced that in order for EVOLUTION to fulfill its real 
purpose, to reach not merely evolutionists but broad masses of the 
people with its message, it is helpful to keep the rate of $1 per year. 

So we shall make room for these improvements by leaving out all 
commercial advertising beginning with our next issue, and depend on 
our friends to send enough additional subscribers to make up for the 
loss in advertising revenue. 

If you approve of this policy, will you not send in a list of sub- 
scriptions? Until October 1st we shall continue our offer of 50c per 
year in lists of live or more. After that date the rate will be 60c. 
Better make up a list of your friends right away, so that their sub- 
scriptions will start with the new features that will begin in our next 


liere are the friends whom heat ot summer could not daunt, 
little monkey pendant went to each one that sent ten or more. 


17 L W. Howerth 
12 Knute Evertz 
12 V.Nesteroff 
10 G. Schmemann 
10 Frank Hart 
10 Wm. G. Schultz 
10 J. C. R. Charest 
10 G. Obergfell 
10 E. Prizer 

10 G. F. Marvin 
10 Arnold Gross 
10 J. M. Kent 
10 Frank Childs 
10 V. G. Bloede 
10 Albert Boehm 
10 A. W. Watwood 
10 A. Bogard 
10 J. N. Chain 
10 Wm. DeCoster 
Rate: Single, $1 per year; in lists of five or more, 50c 

10 Richard White 
6 A. L. Goldwater 
6 L. King Quan 
5 W. C. Kraatz 
S Sidney Bailey 
5 S. Liberty 
5 H. E. Kelsey 
5 Frank Solm 
5 S. W. Narregang 

; (after October 1, 60c). 

ink free and 
casyasalead pencil 
without a miss, skip 
or blur. Won't blot, 
scratch, leak or soil 
hands. No compli- 
cated mechanism to 
Ret out of order. High- 
est grade materials and 

MAKES 3 to 4 
With Original In Ink 

Patent Automatic 14 kt. 
Gold Feed prcvcntsclogging 
— steady, uniform flow of ink 
actually improves your hand- 
writing. Also made in smaller 
size with ring on cap for men's 
watch chain or ladies' sautoir. 


prepaid If remittance accompan 
order. Year's guarantee certilicate as- 
euresabsolutesatisfaction. Yourmoney 
back if not satisfied within ten days. 


19-150 Centre St.. New York ^ 

Af PMXQ This big value sells on 1 
'^^J*-^^ * »-' sight. Big profits, quick " 
sales, no investment, immediate commis- 
sions. Send for Inkograph and order book 
and begin taking orders or write for FREEsale:. plan- 

Luaulorii m 

Syracuse. N, Y. 
Stockton, Calif.